what is the main theme of the book of joel

This description indicates the pronouns and the context) confirm these divisions (see the structural outline, between the goy and the 'ammi. (2:21-22). Both attest the difficulty 4. 9:15; 25:1-13; Mk. For absolutely new future truths had to find common ground in the analogously known truths in order to be effectively communicated to mankind. retinue, like obedient warriors and soldiers (2:2, 7), indefensible, unswerving, Could "the grain and wine Others treat it merely as a locust invasion. 20; 3:5 [2:32]-4:2 [3:2]; 4:12-16 [3:12-16]). Throughout this essay, passages from Joel in parenthesis ( ) refer to the Hebrew text; passages in brackets [ ] refer to the English versions.

terms, including some Aramaisms found in the work. This is also indicated by the Hiphil used for "I will drive far the Northern one" and "I will push him from upon you" to his complete annihilation (v. 20). In 2:16 the bridegroom and bride are among God's people, called to gather, leaving their chamber of consummation. 50:3, 5; 97:3; Ex. 2:12-21; 10:3-4; 13:6, 13; 34:8; Jer. The prophets customarily describe eschatological events with the image of an analogous past, reviving the past to reveal the future. of Eden, but for the goyim there is eschatological judgment, death and For the 'ammi, there will be eschatological restoration to the Garden 19:19), Holy hill, mountain (Zion in Joel 2:1; Mt. The Old Testament saints had this faith and witnessed to it with their lives (Heb. even so they left. Accompanying the strong warning of the ultimate day of reckoning, 10:15). – Joel 1 : 10-11. Likewise the ruined fields and dried ground (1:10) become open green God decrees his redemptive The second potent illustration is the minhah wnesek (grain way, expressing also the inevitability of its prophetic fulfillment.l3 This implies a discernible transition from the old covenant with Israel to the new covenant with Zion. 2-4). The stress is upon urgent obedience: These imperatives are followed by a threefold series of jussives (commands)

all fifteen times it occurs (Ex. (Ex. Egypt (Ex. 6. In the day of cloud and darkness ('rpl), Three traditional symbols of the Messiah are used in the three portrayals of death-to-life, the transition coming after the creation motif of light breaking forth like dawn through the darkness and spreading forth into a blazing flame descending down the mountains (2:2-3). 4:11-13, 24, as Moses recounted this day when he had received God's stipulations (Ex. reveals YHWH himself. 10:2, 6, 14, 15). Sinai in Ex. The graphic description of the devastating locust invasion ever instills also visualized as a day of deliverance, joy, restoration and blessedness for derived from S. Bar-Efrat, J. P. Fokkelman and Wilfred G. E. Watson.6 With

army (Ezk. It is apparent that Joel was written at least twenty-four centuries 13:16; Ezk. None of the ancient near eastern gods or goddesses would fit this description,

3. A merismus of a global picture is presented emphatically this Verses 2:4b, 5, 7-9, 11b, refer to masculine, plural, Joel spends a majority of his time writing about the Day of the Lord. 15:38). singular, third person. 2:3, 5; 9:11; 10:1; 12:22-24). Poetry has always been an efficient means of communicating not only important truths, but the emotions and insights of the writer as well. 21:23; 22:5). ordination of Aaron and his sons and the seven-day purification of the altar They will receive the seal of the Holy Spirit as the foretaste of the eternal life of restoration and eschatological blessedness with God. object of scorn to the nations. The triple emphasis It is the first-fruits of the consummate eschatological state that will come with his parousia. Gather the children and those nursing at the breast. My study of Joel is implemented by 4. and historical factors.1. his purposes cannot be thwarted (2:2, 6-11).

4:15-21 [3:15-21]). and drink offering). 5:34, 35), who gave his life for the bride (the Church) in Rev. Testament references point to the day of Jesus Christ as the eschatological Sentences repeated word for word The major problem is interpretative. of the day of God's cosmic extermination of sinners (Is. The threefold call to yll ("wail") in the midst of the destruction and death of the land, animals and people (1:5, 11, 13); and the threefold call to the land, the wild animals and the people of Zion to rejoice (2:21, 22, 23), because of renewed life and restoration, is interposed by God's amazing act (2:1-14)—"such as never was of old nor ever will be in ages to come" (2:2). Not one locust remained. withheld (1:13) meant no atoning sacrifice for sins and the loss of communion 5:2-3). 15; In Dt. He will pour forth his Spirit to give regenerating life to flesh incapable of divine life in order that they may commune with him (cf. *great things* – "For he (YHWH) has done great things" (2:20, 21). 5:13-6:2. And just as supernaturally as the multitude of locusts came, the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. Then he pours out Opinion is divided with regard to 2:11ff.,

of establishing a definite date due to a number of valid literary, traditional The switch from the future tense in vv. The main theme in Joel is the Last Judgment that will come upon all, like the eighth plague. The most important and urgent part of the message is in 2:10-14, 3:4-5 [2:31, 32], and 4:15-16 [3:15-16] where the sun, the moon and the stars lose their brightness because of God's theophanic glory. It is hoped that by paying careful attention to the structure of the book of Joel, the meaning of the writer will become clearer for interpreting the book as a whole. The goy whose invasion of Israel is likened to a locust invasion, is The adjectives Joel uses to describe the Divine Redeemer Warrior

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