peaks and troughs meaning

A long hollow in the earth's surface. The therapeutic range is the dose required to effectively treat a disease, while staying in a nontoxic range for the individual. A variety of medications have a therapeutic range. Here Are Our Top English Tips, The Best Articles To Improve Your English Language Usage, The Most Common English Language Questions. The trough is the lowest level of the drug while in the therapeutic range. Copyright © 2020 Picmonic - All Rights Reserved |, We use cookies to offer you a better experience and to analyze site traffic. As well, each new trough would also be higher than the previous trough over the same period of time. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation.

Peak specimens, which represent the highest level, are generally collected ½ hour after the dose is given intravenously or 1 hour after it is given intramuscularly. Theophylline (anhydrous)], antibiotics (ex.

This is the time it takes the body to excrete or eliminate half of the medicated dose. From the middle of December 2001 to the third week of April 2002, the stock price moved from about $46.50 to $53.50, a percentage move in the area of 15%, exclusive of commissions. Make ample use of opportunities afforded by one’s position in order to benefit oneself, especially financially. Picmonic's rapid review multiple-choice quiz allows you to assess your knowledge. More example sentences. Investor confidence and an optimistic view of the future of a particular issue drives stock prices upward, and conversely, lack of confidence sees even the most stalwart issues begin a downtrend. It is important to know which medications need to be monitored and what the signs and symptoms of toxicity are. That is, the patient should not feel drugged or "high," or have withdrawal symptoms (abstinence syndrome) during that time. The trough is drawn just before a drug is scheduled to be given; the peak is drawn after the drug is administered (30 to 60 min after infusion). peak and trough specimens: serum samples collected to determine the level of an antibiotic or other pharmaceutic agent in the blood.

To assess peak levels, the time for drawing depends on the route of administration: White Blood Cell Differential Case Simulator, Learn more about Special Topics in Phlebotomy (online CE course), Intravenous (IV): 15 - 30 minutes after injection/infusion, Intramuscular (IM): 30 minutes - one hour after injection, Oral: One hour after drug is taken (assumes a half-life of > two hours). The lowest level of the drug in the patient's body is called the trough level.

A serum sample collected to determine the changing levels of an antibiotic or other medication in the blood. Peak Area Changing Rate During Atrial Contraction. Doctors must time dosing with the goal of keeping levels consistent by delivering medication before concentrations reach a trough. In some cases, the next dose could be skipped or the dose will be decreased for patient safety. The term "zigzag pattern" has been used to describe the peaks and troughs, and many charting software programs will have a "%-zigzag" indicator that investors can lay down on a chart that they are viewing. ​Rising peaks and troughs can be seen easily on a chart by recognizing the higher peaks, or tops, and higher troughs, or bottoms, creating the uptrend. By continuing to use this website you consent to the use of cookies in accordance with our. A diamond top formation is a technical analysis pattern that often occurs at, or near, market tops and can signal a reversal of an uptrend. Alternatives measures to date business cycles? A head and shoulders pattern is a bearish indicator that appears on a chart as a set of 3 troughs and peaks, with the center peak a head above 2 shoulders. The peak is the highest concentration that a medication can achieve in the blood.

peak = high level. It is important to understand when a medication begins working, a drug's half-life, how long it is in the system, and how it is eliminated.

peak = high level trough = low level. Peaks and Troughs. phr. In simple terms, drawdowns are expressed as a percentage. To assess drug concentrations during the trough phase, blood should be drawn immediately before the next dose. "The factory workers sometimes painted the walls because there were peaks and troughs in production." Swing low is a term used in technical analysis that refers to the troughs reached by a security's price or an indicator. In the above chart of PepsiCo, Inc. (PEP), up arrows show you the rising troughs and down arrows indicate the rising peaks of this uptrend. The 2009 guidelines for monitoring vancomycin levels in adult patients recommended patients:. Given that chartists place a great deal of emphasis on the psychological aspects of technical analysis, some technicians might agree that this tried and proven technical indicator outshines most, if not all, trend-following techniques. Determining the time to draw the peak level will depend on the drug, the method of administration, if it is an extended release, and the drug half-life. As we know, prices never move in straight lines, whether in an uptrend or a downtrend. An inverse head and shoulders, also called a head and shoulders bottom, is inverted with the head and shoulders top used to predict reversals in downtrends. This is typically done 30 minutes before the next dose is scheduled to be administered. A long, narrow open container for animals to eat or drink out of. At the peak, large amounts are circulating, and at the trough, the levels fall very low.

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